Because of the limited availability of wood and steel, masonry in one form or another is the most common building material in China, with concrete second in popularity. Besides being prevalent today, masonry has a long Chinese heritage. Some sections of the Great Wall of China are more than 2000 years old. In modern-day China, up-to-date and ancient technologies are juxtaposed. JOBSITE CONDITIONS For mid- and high-rise buildings in major cities, masonry units, grout, and mortar typically are transported by crane or lift. Tower cranes are used extensively in large cities. But most small- and medium-size projects use wheelbarrows, buggies, crude lifts, or manpower. Many large construction sites in Beijing and Shanghai were as safe as the average North American project site, with safety nets used extensively. However, projects elsewhere did not always adhere to the same safety standards. While steel scaffolding is used in the northern part of China, bamboo scaffolding is prevalent in Shanghai and throughout the southern part of the country. DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS Many types of masonry pattern bonds can be found in China. Single-wythe and veneer walls commonly use running bond or stack bond with either stretcher or soldier courses. Flemish bond is the most common pattern bond for multiple-wythe walls. MASONRY MATERIALS Standard-size clay brick appear to be used more than all other types of masonry materials combined. Used for both interior and exterior walls, hollow clay tile is more common in China than in North America. Concrete block are rarely used in China. Mortar mixes typically correspond to North American Type N or O. More lime than cement was used in the typical mixes. Aggregate and lime putty proportions were determined by shovel and thus varied substantially.