Chemists and petrographers can perform tests on hardened mortar to find out the amount and types of ingredients in it. WHAT'S IN THE MORTAR Typical mortar ingredients include sand, hydrated lime, masonry cement, portland cement, fly ash, blast-furnace slag, and limestone. Using a microscope, petrographers can identify the mineralogical composition and gradation of the sand and the type of cementitious materials used. Petrographers are guided by ASTM C 295, Petrographic Examination of Aggregate for Concrete, and ASTM C 856, Petrographic Examination of Hardened Concrete. Chemists follow ASTM C 85, Cement Content of Hardened Portland Cement Concrete. Typically, portland cement and lime or a masonry cement is the binding agent for mortar. Petrographic examination often can distinguish if hydrated lime has been added to the mortar. Once the quantity of cementitious materials is known, the sand content can be calculated. Air-entraining agents, integral waterproofers, accelerators, polymers, and other organic admixtures in the mortar can be identified by using infrared spectrophotometric analysis.